500+ Hacking Tutorials in PDF - Free DownloadA Hacker is somebody who finds weaknesses in a computer or computer network and exploits them through a process called penetration or penetration testing (depending on the motive). Hackers may be motivated by a multitude of reasons such as profit, protest, challenge, or to aid security by pointing out vulnerabilities. The subculture that has evolved around hackers is often referred to as the computer underground and is now a known community.Bruce Sterling traces part of the roots of the computer underground to the Yippies, a 1960s counterculture movement which published the Technological Assistance Program (TAP) newsletter.TAP was a phone phreaking newsletter that taught the techniques necessary for the unauthorized exploration of the phone network. Many people from the phreaking community are also active in the hacking community even today, and vice versa.
Black hatA "black hat hacker" (also known as a cracker) is a hacker who violates computer security with malicious intent or for personal gain. Black hat hackers form the stereotypical illegal hacking groups often portrayed in pop culture, and are "the epitome of all that the public fears in a computer criminal". Black hat hackers break into secure networks to destroy data or make the network unusable for those who are authorized to use the network. They choose their targets using a two-pronged process known as the "pre-hacking stage".
Part 1: Targeting
The hacker determines what network to break into during this phase. The target may be of particular interest to the hacker, either politically or personally, or it may be picked at random. Next, they will port scan a network to determine if it is vulnerable to attacks, which is just testing all ports on a host machine for a response. Open ports—those that do respond—will allow a hacker to access the system.
Part 2: Research and Information Gathering
It is in this stage that the hacker will visit or contact the target in some way in hopes of finding out vital information that will help them access the system. The main way that hackers get desired results from this stage is from "social engineering", which will be explained below. Aside from social engineering, hackers can also use a technique called "dumpster diving". Dumpster diving is when a hacker will literally search through users' garbage in hopes of finding documents that have been thrown away, which may contain information a hacker can use directly or indirectly, to help them gain access to a network.
Part 3: Finishing The Attack
This is the stage when the hacker will invade the preliminary target that he/she was planning to attack or steal. Many "hackers" will be caught after this point, lured in or grabbed by any data also known as a honeypot (a trap set up by computer security personnel).